1. US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “EEOC Sues Comfort Suites for Disability Discrimination” (Washington, DC, 2010), https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/eeoc-sues-comfort-suites-disability-discrimination.
2. Parke Rouse, “Workhouses in Virginia: Certainly a Poor State to Be In,” Daily Press, February 19, 1989, https://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-xpm-19890219-1989-02-19-8902190007-story.html.
3. National Federation of the Blind, “Anil Lewis,” https://www.nfb.org/about-us/national-headquarters/executive-directors/anil-lewis.
1. The Stage Is Set for Broken Promises
1. Cheryl Bates-Harris. “Segregated and Exploited: The Failure of the Disability Service System to Provide Quality Work,” Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 36, no. 1 (2012): 39–64, https://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-2012-0581.
2. US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Jury Awards $240 Million for Long-Term Abuse of Workers with Intellectual Disabilities” (Washington, DC, 2013), https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/jury-awards-240-million-long-term-abuse-workers-intellectual-disabilities.
5. National Federation of the Blind, “National Federation of the Blind Urges Boycott of Goodwill Industries,” June 7, 2012, https://www.nfb.org/about-us/press-room/national-federation-blind-urges-boycott-goodwill-industries.
7. There are numerous names for the organizations that are funded to provide employment services for people with disabilities. I use “agency,” “sheltered workshop,” “nonprofit,” “work activity center,” and “community rehabilitation provider” interchangeably because those terms are used interchangeably inside the disability industrial complex. Each of these descriptors can hold a 14(c) subminimum-wage certificate and can legally pay subminimum wages.
8. Alice Minium, “The Dark Reality Behind America’s Greatest Thrift Store Empire: How a Saturday Night Internet Wormhole Effectively Ruined My Favorite Store,” Medium, April 22, 2018, https://medium.com/@aliceminium/the-dark-reality-behind-americas-greatest-thrift-store-empire-183967087a1e.
9. Fair Wages for Workers with Disabilities Act of 2013, H.R. 831, 113th Cong. (2013).
10. Next Steps New Hampshire, “Work Early, Work Often: Parents/Caregivers of Young Adults with Disabilities,” video, March 2016, https://nextsteps-nh.org/video/work-early-work-often-parents/.
11. Tom Cotton, “Cotton Statement on Sheltered Workshops That Serve Arkansans with Developmental Disabilities,” April 6, 2018, https://www.cotton.senate.gov/?p=press_release&id=920.
13. Karin Allison, “Time Study Information” (National Institute on Severe Handicaps, 2016), https://silo.tips/download/time-study-information-introduction.
14. US Government Accountability Office, “Employing People with Blindness or Severe Disabilities: Enhanced Oversight of the AbilityOne Program Needed,” GAO-13-457 (Washington, DC, 2013), https://www.gao.gov/assets/660/654946.pdf.
2. From Evil Intentions to Unintended Consequences
1. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “The Murder of the Handicapped,” https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/the-murder-of-the-handicapped.
2. Nathan Nelson, Workshops for the Handicapped in The United States: An Historical and Developmental Perspective (New York, NY: Thomas Publishing, 1971).
3. Steven J. Taylor and Steven D. Blatt, eds., In Search of the Promised Land: The Collected Papers of Burton Blatt (Washington, DC: American Association of Mental Retardation, 1999).
4. Wolf Wolfensberger, “Normalization,” https://www.wolfwolfensberger.com/life-s-work/normalization.
3. Subminimum Wages and Disability Rights
2. William G. Whitaker, Treatment of Workers with Disabilities Under Section 14(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, RL30674 (US Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, February 2005).
5. Wyatt v. Stickney, 325 F.Supp. 781 (M.D. Ala. 1971).
6. Global Macro Monitor, “Manufacturing Employment in the U.S.,” April 30, 2012, https://global-macro-monitor.com/2012/04/30/manufacturing-employment-in-the-u-s/.
7. American Presidency Project, “Department of Labor Nomination of Xavier M. Vela to Be Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division,” May 23, 1977, https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/department-labor-nomination-xavier-m-vela-be-administrator-the-wage-and-hour-division.
4. The Floor Is Gone and Modern Lobbying Arrives
2. Southeastern Community College v. Davis, 442 U.S. 397 (1979), https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/442/397/.
6. National Federation of the Blind, “History,” https://www.nfb.org/about-us/history-and-governance.
7. Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Ctr., 473 U.S. 432 (1985), https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/473/432/.
8. College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, “Donald Elisburg,” http://www.cwclawyers.org/html/donald_elisburg.html.
5. The Olmstead Supreme Court Decision and Freedom Fighters
1. Joanne Finnegan, “Survey Finds More Than 9 in 10 People Say Doctors Are the Most Trusted Professionals,” Fierce Healthcare, 2019, https://www.fiercehealthcare.com/practices/survey-finds-over-9-10-people-say-doctors-are-most-trusted-professionals.
2. Bayh v. Sonnenburg, 573 N.E.2d 398 (1991).
3. Bayh v. Sonnenburg, Case Brief Summary, May 3, 2013, http://www.casebriefsummary.com/bayh-v-sonnenburg/.
4. Robin Nelson, “Unlocked: The Lois Curtis Story,” Robin Rayne: A Southern Photo-journalist’s Notebook, November 27, 2010, https://assignmentatlanta.wordpress.com/2010/11/27/unlocked-the-lois-curtis-story/2010.
5. Robert Evert Cimera, Lauren Avellone, and Carol Feldman-Sparber, “An Investigation of the Outcomes Achieved by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Illnesses,” Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 43, no. 2 (2015): 129–135, https://doi.org/10.3233/jvr-150762.
6. Sue Burrell, “Trauma and the Environment of Care in Juvenile Institutions,” National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, 2013, https://www.nctsn.org/resources/trauma-and-environment-care-juvenile-institutions#:~:text=This%20brief%2C%20written%20by%20Sue,best%20practices%20and%20support%20for.
7. Derrick Henry, “Elaine Wilson,” Atlanta Journal Constitution, 2004, https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/atlanta/obituary.aspx?n=elaine-wilson&pid=2907375.
8. John Elflein, “Mental Health Treatment Facilities by Setting of Services in the U.S. 2019,” Statista, August 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/450277/mental-health-facilities-in-the-us-by-service-type/.
10. K. Charlie Lakin et al., “Factors Associated with Expenditures for Medicaid Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) and Intermediate Care Facilities for Persons with Mental Retardation (ICF/MR) Services for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,” Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 46, no. 3 (2008): 200–214, https://doi.org/10.1352/2008.46:200-214.
11. US Department of Justice, “Special Litigation Section,” 2020, https://www.justice.gov/crt/special-litigation-section.
12. Olmstead Rights, “Sue Jamieson’s Story Continued,” https://www.olmsteadrights.org/iamolmstead/history/item.5402-Sue_Jamiesons_Story_Continued.
13. Olmstead v. L. C., 527 U.S. 581 (1999).
16. For an interesting examination of these issues, see Mary C. Cerreto, “Olmstead: The Brown v. Board of Education for Disability Rights—Promises, Limits, and Issues,” Loyola Journal of Public Interest Law 3, no. 1 (Fall 2001): 47–78.
17. Henry, “Elaine Wilson.”
18. Olmstead Rights, “Sue Jamieson’s Story Continued.”
19. Vicki Gaylord et al., eds, Impact: Feature Issue on the ADA and People with Intellectual, Developmental, and Other Disabilities 28, no. 1, Institute on Community Integration (UCEDD) and the Research and Training Center on Community Living, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota, Winter 2015.
20. Henry, “Elaine Wilson.”
6. Early Adopters and Tearing Down Assumptions
1. Context in segregated programs, whether in the institution or sheltered workshop, is often not considered. More often, the person who is “having behaviors” is simply viewed through the lens of the deleterious conduct that needs to be ameliorated rather than those actions being seen and interpreted as the communication of a need.
2. Several YouTube videos show Gold speaking and using the “Try Another Way” approach with people considered “profoundly” intellectually disabled.
3. Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986, S. 2515, 99th Cong. (1986).
4. Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102–569, 102nd Cong. (1992).
5. Known simply by policy makers as the “DD Act,” the legislation in its first iteration in 1963 focused on the scientific understanding of DD (which includes the labels of intellectual disability, autism, cerebral palsy, and brain injuries prior to age twenty-one). The DD Act has been amended several times, most fundamentally in the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106–402, 106th Cong. (2000).
6. Administration for Community Living, “The Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000,” 2017, https://acl.gov/about-acl/authorizing-statutes/developmental-disabilities-assistance-and-bill-rights-act-2000.
7. An interviewee was granted anonymity, if requested.
8. National Council on Disability, “National Disability Employment Policy, From the New Deal to the Real Deal: Joining the Industries of the Future” (Washington, DC, 2018), https://ncd.gov/sites/default/files/Documents/NCD_Deal_Report_508.pdf.
10. P. Rogan, M. Held, and S. Rinne, “Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment for Adults with Disabilities,” in Supported Employment in Business: Expanding the Capacity of Workers with Disabilities, edited by P. Wehman (St. Augustine, FL: TRN, 2001).
11. Gordon C. Shen and Lonnie R. Snowden, “Institutionalization of Deinstitutionalization: A Cross-National Analysis of Mental Health System Reform,” International Journal of Mental Health Systems 8, no. 1 (2014), https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-8-47.
7. Federal Policy as Catalyst, Barrier, and Duality
1. Internal Revenue Service, “Work Opportunity Tax Credit,” https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/work-opportunity-tax-credit.
2. Lila MacLellan, “German Attitudes about Disability Disclosure Are Shaped by a Nazi Past,” Quartz at Work, 2017, https://qz.com/work/1110806/german-attitudes-about-disability-disclosure-in-the-workplace-are-shaped-by-a-nazi-past/.
N3. Corada, “Department of Labor, Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP),” https://www.corada.com/links/department-of-labor-office-of-disability-employment-policy-odep.
6. PACER, “Video Series: Work Early, Work Often,” 2015, https://www.pacer.org/transition/video/series.asp?se=40.
7. Angela Montgomery, “How to Overcome Resistance to Change—A Systemic Approach,” Intelligent Management, June 17, 2020, https://www.intelligentmanagement.ws/how-to-overcome-resistance-to-change/.
8. Making A Difference Magazine, Fall 2005, https://gcdd.org/archived-making-a-difference-magazine/2367-making-a-difference-magazine-fall-2005.html.
9. Tod Citron et al., “A Revolution in the Employment Process of Individuals with Disabilities: Customized Employment as the Catalyst for System Change,” Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 28, no. 3 (2008): 169–179.
11. For examples, see “Customized Employment Makes Dreams Come True,” Making a Difference, Summer 2004, 18–21, http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ggpd/docs/2004/ga/g630_pd4/p1/m3/summer/2004/elec_p_btext.con/1.pdf.
12. Cary Griffin, David Hammis, and Tammara Geary, The Job Developer’s Handbook, 1st ed. (Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, 2007).
13. Samantha Crane, “New CMS Regulation on HCBS Settings: Implications for Employment Services,” (LEAD Center, June 25, 2014), http://leadcenter.org/webinars/new-cms-regulation-hcbs-settings-implications-employment-services.
14. Chai R. Feldblum, Dexter Brooks, Aaron Konopasky, and Jennifer Sheehy, “Federal Government as a Model Employer: Understanding Changes to Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act” (EARN, January 23, 2017), https://askearn.org/event/federal-government-as-a-model-employer-understanding-changes-to-section-501-of-the-rehabilitation-act/.
15. Mustafa Karakus, William Frey, Howard Goldman, Suzanne Fields, and Robert Drake, Federal Financing of Supported Employment and Customized Employment for People with Mental Illnesses: Final Report (US Department of Health and Human Services, February 2011), https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/76216/supempFR.pdf.
16. Jean Winsor et al., “StateData: The National Report on Employment Services and Outcomes through 2016” (Boston: Institute for Community Inclusion (UCEDD) University of Massachusetts, 2018), https://www.statedata.info/sites/statedata.info/files/files/statedata2018_web_F.pdf.
8. The Nightmare in Atalissa
1. David Weil, “Field Assistance Bulletin No. 2015–1” (Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Wage & Hour Division, 2015).
2. UCLA Labor Center, “The Bracero Program,” https://www.labor.ucla.edu/what-we-do/research-tools/the-bracero-program/.
3. Dan Barry, The Boys in The Bunkhouse (New York: Harper Perennial, 2017).
4. Sue Gant, Final Expert Report on Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Hill Country Farms, Inc., d/b/a Henry’s Turkey Service (Gant, Yackel and Associates, 2013).
5. Shantha Rau Barriga, “We Need to Stop Treating People with Disabilities as Less Than Human,” Guardian, June 20, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2016/jun/20/we-need-to-stop-treating-people-with-disabilities-as-less-than-human.
6. Raymond Lemay, “Social Role Valorization and the Principle of Normalization as Guides for Social Contexts and Human Services for People at Risk of Societal Devaluation,” in Encyclopedia of Disability and Rehabilitation, ed. Arthur E. Dell Orto and Robert P. Marinelli (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1995), 515–521.
7. New York Times, “Broken Trust: A Cycle of Abuse”, in The Weekly, produced by Sweta Vohra, February 21, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/21/the-weekly/child-abuse-willowbrook-union-ave-bronx-si.html.
8. Gant, Expert Report.
9. Rita Price, “Workshops Still Get Most Federal Funds for Disabled”, Inde Online, April 3, 2012, https://www.indeonline.com/article/20120403/NEWS/304039709?template=ampart.
10. US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Henry’s Turkey Service, Heirs Must Turn over Almost $600,000 Owed to Disabled Workers” (Washington, DC, 2015), https://www.eeoc.gov/newsroom/henrys-turkey-service-heirs-must-turn-over-almost-600000-owed-disabled-workers.
11. Brian Wellner, “Bunkhouse Demo Closes Chapter for Atalissa,” Quad-City Times, https://qctimes.com/news/local/bunkhouse-demo-closes-chapter-for-atalissa/article_390eda30-9eed-5e69-a67d-7f371c082083.html.
12. Dan Barry, “Bias Suit Filed on Behalf of Disabled Men in South Carolina Meat Plant,” New York Times, September 30, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/01/us/bias-suit-disabled-workers-meat-plant.html.
13. Clark Kauffman, “Echoes of Atalissa: Federal Agency Sues Bunkhouse Owner for Exploiting Mentally Disabled Workers,” Des Moines Register, https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/news/2017/12/11/atalissa-echoes-federal-agency-sues-bunkhouse-owner-exploiting-mentally-disabled-workers/924471001/.
9. Boycotting Goodwill
1. Goodwill, “Goodwill Industries: 100 Years of the Power of Work,” https://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/First_100_Years_Timeline.pdf.
2. Nelson, Workshops for the Handicapped, 38–39.
4. National Federation of the Blind, “Marc Maurer,” https://www.nfb.org/about-us/leadership/presidents-corner/past-presidents/marc-maurer.
5. DC Advocacy Partners, “An Analysis of and Recommendations regarding Disability Employment Issues that Include Center-Based Employment and Section 14(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act,” http://dcpartners.iel.org/sites/default/files/sub%20minimum%20wage%20silverstein.pdf.
6. Change.org, “Goodwill Industries International: Pay Disabled Workers A Real Wage,” 2013, https://www.change.org/p/goodwill-industries-international-pay-disabled-workers-a-real-wage.
8. In 1976 author and historian James Weinstein founded In These Times with the mission to “identify and clarify the struggles against corporate power now multiplying in American society.”
10. Aimee Christian, “My Disabled Daughter Isn’t Your Inspiration Porn,” Washington Post, February 19, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/2020/02/19/my-disabled-daughter-isnt-your-inspiration-porn/.
11. The Arc, “Self Determination,” https://thearc.org/position-statements/self-determination/.
12. J. David Smith and Michael L. Wehmeyer, Good Blood, Bad Blood: Science, Nature, and the Myth of the Kallikaks, 1st ed. (Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2012).
13. Arc, “Self Determination.”
14. National Federation of the Blind, “Groups Urge End to Subminimum Wages for Disabled Workers,” https://nfb.org/index.php/about-us/press-room/cross-disability-groups-join-national-federation-blind-protests.
10. Oregon, Rhode Island, and the Promise of a Way Forward
1. Wikileaks, “The SourceAmerica Tapes—Background,” November 16, 2015, https://wikileaks.org/sourceamerica-tapes/background.html.
2. SourceAmerica, “Statement on CNN Story,” https://www.sourceamerica.org/newsroom/press-releases/statement-cnn-story.
3. US Department of Labor, “Customized Employment,” https://www.dol.gov/agencies/odep/topics/customized-employment.
4. Kristin Andrews, “What Were the Top Outcomes of State Medicaid Infrastructure (MIG) Grants?” (Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research, 2013), https://www.mathematica.org/our-publications-and-findings/publications/what-were-the-top-outcomes-of-state-medicaid-infrastructure-mig-grants.
7. Camilli, Danielle. “State Saves Sheltered Workshops for Adults with Developmentally Disabilities,” Burlington County Times, July 29, 2013, https://www.burlingtoncountytimes.com/article/20130729/NEWS/307299778.
11. A Legislative Fix Was In
1. Lane v. Kitzhaber, 841 F.Supp.2d 1199 (D. Oregon, 2012), 27.
2. Institute for Community Inclusion, “National Core Indicators: Employment Trends for Adults with ID/DD and Suggestions for Policy Development,” http://www.nationalcoreindicators.org/upload/presentation/ASPE_Presentation_060914FINAL_1.pdf.
3. Lane, 841 F.Supp.2d 1199 at 1.
4. Huffington Post, “How Some Charter Schools Leave Special Needs Students Behind: Students with ‘Fairly Substantial Special Education Needs’ Are Not Faring Well in Some Charter Environments,” June 1, 2016, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/charter-schools-special-needs_n_574f0be2e4b0ed593f12e8a4.
6. Loretta Kalb, “Special-Needs Students Pick up Trash at School: It’s ‘Demeaning,’ Says One Teen,” Sacramento Bee, July 6, 2016, https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/education/article87652802.html#storylink=cpy.
7. Amy Silverman, “Food, Flowers, and Filth,” Phoenix Magazine, December 1, 2018, https://www.phoenixmag.com/2018/12/01/food-flowers-and-filth/.
9. US Department of Labor, Fact Sheet #39H: The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and Limitations on Payment of Subminimum Wages under Section 14(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, February 2019, https://www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fact-sheets/39h-14c-WIOA.
11. Kathryn Watson, “Trump Wants to Bring Back Mental Institutions to Address Mass Shootings,” CBS News, August 16, 2019, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trump-wants-to-bring-back-mental-institutions-to-address-mass-shootings/.
12. Brown Goldstein & Levy, “Disability Consulting,” https://browngold.com/practice-areas/disability-consulting/.
12. Ohio and the Future of Subminimum Wages
1. John H. Cushman, Jr., “International Business; Nike Pledges to End Child Labor and Apply U.S. Rules Abroad,” New York Times, May 13, 1998, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/13/business/international-business-nike-pledges-to-end-child-labor-and-apply-us-rules-abroad.html.
3. Smith v. Chrysler Corp., 155 F.3d 799 (6th Cir., 1998), https://www.casemine.com/judgement/us/5914805eadd7b04934471e50.
4. Hillel Aron, “Lawsuit Takes Aim at Sheltered Workshops, Where Disabled Workers Make Far Less than Minimum Wage,” Fair Warning, September 18, 2019, https://www.fairwarning.org/2019/09/hundreds-of-thousands-of-disabled-workers-still-make-less-than-minimum-wage/.
5. State of Rhode Island General Assembly, “House Votes to Repeal Bill Allowing Subminimum Wages for Disabled Workers.” February 25, 2020, http://www.rilin.state.ri.us/pressrelease/_layouts/RIL.PressRelease.ListStructure/Forms/DisplayForm.aspx?List=c8baae31-3c10-431c-8dcd-9dbbe21ce3e9&ID=370788.
6. National Council on Disability, “2018 National Disability Employment Policy, From the New Deal to the Real Deal: Joining the Industries of the Future” (Washington, DC: National Council on Disability, 2018), https://ncd.gov/publications/2018/new-deal-real-deal.
7. Jean Winsor et al., “StateData: The National Report on Employment Services and Outcomes through 2017,” (Boston: Institute for Community Inclusion (UCEDD) University of Massachusetts 2019), 21–27, https://www.thinkwork.org/sites/default/files/files/bluebook2019_Final.pdf.
9. National Council on Disability, “2018 National Disability Employment Policy.”
10. Corlyn Voorhees, “A Maine Nonprofit Paid Its Disabled Workers Less than Minimum Wage, While Its Executives Got Six Figures,” Bangor Daily News, July 12, 2017, https://bangordailynews.com/2017/07/12/mainefocus/a-maine-nonprofit-paid-its-disabled-workers-less-than-minimum-wage-while-its-executives-got-six-figures/.
11. Ri’Shawn Bassette, “Lowndes Co. Non-profit to Pay More Than $150k in Back Pay,” WALB News 10, July 23, 2019, https://www.walb.com/2019/07/23/lowndes-conon-profit-pay-more-than-k-back-pay/.
12. US Department of Labor, “U.S. Department of Labor Acts to Protect Individuals with Disabilities from Workplace Exploitation” (Washington, DC, 2018), https://www.dol.gov/newsroom/releases/whd/whd20180423.
13. Mark Maxwell, “Goodwill Pulls Paychecks from Disabled Workers,” WCIA 3 News, July 16, 2019, https://www.wcia.com/news/local-news/goodwill-pulls-paychecks-from-disabled-workers/.
14. NPR, Abused And Betrayed, 2018, https://www.npr.org/series/575502633/abused-and-betrayed.
15. NPR, “NPR Investigation Finds Hidden Epidemic of Sexual Assault,” hosted by Joseph Shapiro, Abused And Betrayed, January 8,2018, https://www.npr.org/2018/01/08/576428410/npr-investigation-finds-hidden-epidemic-of-sexual-assault.
16. Erika Harrell, “Crime against Persons with Disabilities, 2009–2015—Statistical Tables,” Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2017, https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5986.
17. US Commission on Civil Rights, “U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Releases Report: Subminimum Wages: Impacts on The Civil Rights of People with Disabilities” (Washington, DC, 2020), https://www.usccr.gov/files/2020-09-17-Subminimum-Wages-Report-PR.pdf.
18. Zack Budryk, “Commission on Civil Rights Calls for End to Subminimum Wage for Disabled People,” Hill, September 17, 2020, https://thehill.com/regulation/labor/516869-commission-on-civil-rights-calls-for-end-to-subminimum-wage-for-disabled.
19. An adaption of the Maya Angelou quote, “When someone shows you who they are, believe them the first time.”