Action Center on Race and the Economy
American Federation of Labor
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees
American Federation of Teachers
Asia Floor Wage Alliance
American Legislative Exchange Council
Collective Bargaining Agreement or Community Benefits Agreement
Corrections Corporation of America
Crown Heights Tenant Union
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Coalition of Immokalee Workers
Communications Workers of America
Domestic Workers United
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service
Global Framework Agreements
Global Union Federations
Health Professionals and Allied Employees
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
Interest Based Bargaining
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
The Illinois and Indiana Regional Organizing Network
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union
International Labor Organization
International Labor Rights Forum
International Union of Electrical Workers
International Union of Police Associations
Industrial Workers of the World
Jobs to Move America
Jobs With Justice
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Neighborhood Assistance Corporation of America
National Basketball Association Players’ Association
National Day Labor Organizing Network
National Domestic Workers Alliance
National Football League Players Association
National Industrial Recovery Act
National Labor Leadership Institute
National Labor Relations Act
National Labor Relations Board
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Organization United for Respect at Walmart
Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization
Public Employees Insurance Agency
Project Labor Agreement
Pennsylvania State Education Association
Railway Labor Act
Restaurant Opportunities Center United
Service Employees International Union
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America
United Food and Commercial Workers
Union Network International
Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees (UNITE) and Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE)
United Students Against Sweatshops
US Department of Agriculture
US Employment Plan
US Student Association
United Teachers of Los Angeles
United Workers Congress
Workers Defense Project
West Virginia Education Association
1. Eric Foner, The Second Founding: How the Civil War and Reconstruction Remade the Constitution (New York: W.W. Norton, 2019).
2. Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper Collins, 1990).
3. Adam Dean, Atheendar Venkataramani, and Simeon Kimmel, “Mortality Rates from COVID-19 Are Lower in Unionized Nursing Homes,” Health Affairs 39, no. 11 (September 2020), https://
doi .org /10 .1377 /hlthaff .2020 .01011.
4. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary,” Economic News Release, January 22, 2021, https://
www .bls .gov /news .release /union2 .nr0 .htm; Drew DeSilver, “American Unions Membership Declines as Public Support Fluctuates,” Pew Research Center, February 20, 2014, https:// www .pewresearch .org /fact -tank /2014 /02 /20 /for -american -unions -membership -trails -far -behind -public -support /.
5. David Weil, “Strategic Enforcement in the Fissured Workplace.” Remarks at the John T. Dunlop Memorial Forum, Labor and Worklife Program, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA, February 12, 2015.
6. Lane Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door: Union Organizing in the 1970s and the Roots of a New Economic Divide (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017).
1. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
1. “This Week’s Profile: P. J. Ciampa,” Memphis Public Libraries, accessed January 12, 2021, https://
www .memphislibrary .org /diversity /sanitation -strike -exhibit /sanitation -strike -exhibit -february -11 -to -17 -edition /this -weeks -profile -p -j -ciampa /; and Michael K. Honey, Going Down Jericho Road: The Memphis Strike, Martin Luther King’s Last Campaign (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007).
2. “Bargaining in Good Faith with Employees’ Union Representative (Section 8(d) & 8(a)(5)),” About NLRB, National Labor Relations Board, accessed January 12, 2021, https://
www .nlrb .gov /rights -we -protect /whats -law /employers /bargaining -good -faith -employees -union -representative -section.
4. 2021 Congressional Budget Submission, FMCS, FY 2021, 7, accessed on November 12, 2021, https://
www .fmcs .gov /wp -content /uploads /2020 /02 /2021 -Congressional -Budget
5. Paul Jacobs, Old Before Its Time: Collective Bargaining at 28 (Santa Barbara, CA: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1963).
6. Milla Regulation of Public Sector Collective Bargaining in the States
7. Ballotpedia, “Union Station: Public Sector Collective Bargaining Legal in Virginia as of May 1,” April 30, 2021, https://
news .ballotpedia .org /2021 /04 /30 /union -station -public -sector -collective -bargaining -legal -in -virginia -as -of -may -1 /#:~:text =In%201977%2C%20the%20Supreme%20Court,North%20Carolina%20and%20South%20Carolina.
8. Lance Compa, Unfair Advantage: Workers’ Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards
9. Minority unions, micro unions, and/or members-only unions represent the exception to this, signing up less than a majority of members but still attempting to negotiate with employers. For more information on minority unions, see Benjamin Sachs, “ ‘Micro Unions’ and Minority Unions,” Onlabor, January 2, 2014, https://
onlabor .org /micro -unions -and -minority -unions /.
10. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary.”
11. The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) is an independent agency created by the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 to mediate labor disputes that substantially affect interstate commerce. For more information on the FMCS, see https://
www .fmcs .gov /.
13. See US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Work Stoppages Summary,” Economic News Release, February 11, 2020, https://
www .bls .gov /news .release /wkstp .nr0 .htm; and Alexia Fernández Campbell, “A Record Number of US Workers Went on Strike in 2018,” Vox, February 13, 2019, https:// www .vox .com /policy -and -politics /2019 /2 /13 /18223211 /worker -teacher -strikes -2018 -record.
15. See Seth Zimmerman, Labor Market Institutions and Economic Mobility (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2008); and Richard Freeman, Eunice Han, David Madland, and Brendan Dukle, Bargaining for the American Dream: What Unions Do for Mobility (Washington, DC: Center for American Progress, 2015).
2. WORKPLACE DEMOCRACY DOES NOT HAPPEN BY ACCIDENT
1. For a deeper dive into the story of the Atlanta washerwomen, see Tera W. Hunter, “Washing Amazons and Organized Protests,” in To ’Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labor after the Civil War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998); and AFL-CIO, “Atlanta’s Washerwomen Strike,” accessed January 12, 2021, https://
aflcio .org /about /history /labor -history -events /atlanta -washerwomen -strike.
2. Erik Loomis, A History of America in Ten Strikes (New York: New Press, 2018), 29–30.
3. In this context the term organized labor refers to collections of workers who have formed unions or a federation of unions. This is in contrast to a movement of workers that may not be affiliated with a specific union, though they may be organized in other ways.
4. Leon Fink, Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 6.
5. Clayton Sinyai, Schools of Democracy: A Political History of the American Labor Movement (Ithaca, NY: ILR Press, 2006), 74.
6. For a more detailed historical analysis of the Knights of Labor through various case studies, see Fink, Workingmen’s Democracy.
7. Sinyai, Schools of Democracy, 74.
8. Woodrow Wilson, The New Freedom: A Call for the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People (New York: Doubleday, 1913), 64–65.
9. For a deeper dive on Woodrow Wilson and his relationship to the labor movement, see Joseph A. McCartin, Labor’s Great War: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations, 1912–1921 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).
10. To learn more about this dynamic, see Sinyai, Schools of Democracy. To learn more about the Pullman strike of 1894 in general, see David Ray Papke, The Pullman Case: The Clash of Labor and Capital in Industrial America (University Press of Kansas, 1999).
11. Ruth O’Brien, Workers’ Paradox: The Republican Origins of New Deal Labor Policy, 1886–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).
12. McCartin, Labor’s Great War, 12.
13. Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door.
14. Max D. Danish, The Story of the ILGWU (New York: International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, 1951); and Cornell University ILR School, “History of the ILGWU,” Kheel Center ILGWU Collection, accessed January 12, 2021, http://
ilgwu .ilr .cornell .edu /history /.
15. See NLRA, 29 U.S.C. §158 (a)(1), (a)(3) (1935).
16. See NLRA, 29 U.S.C. § 158 (d) (1935).
17. Sinyai, Schools of Democracy.
18. Kate Andrias, “An American Approach to Social Democracy: The Forgotten Promise of the Fair Labor Standards Act,” Yale Law Journal 128, no. 3 (2019): 616–709. https://
www .yalelawjournal .org /Andrias _tfwmq5cj
19. Sinyai, Schools of Democracy, 126–127.
20. Robert Wagner, “The Ideal Industrial State—As Wagner Sees It,” New York Times Magazine, May 9, 1937, 8.
21. Heckscher, The New Unionism, 7.
22. Maurice BP-Weeks, “Black Workers Give Me Hope (A Precious Commodity),” Medium (blog), January 9, 2017, https://
medium .com /@mo87mo87 /Black -workers -give -me -hope -a -precious -commodity -32b5757d605b.
23. Sophia Z. Lee, The Workplace Constitution: From the New Deal to the New Right (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 13.
24. Lee, The Workplace Constitution.
25. For more on this dynamic, see Eric Arnesen, Brotherhoods of Color: Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002).
26. Richard B. Freeman, “Spurts in Union Growth: Defining Moments and Social Processes,” in The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century, ed. Michael D. Bordo, Claudia Goldin, and Eugene N. White (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 282.
27. See NLRA, 29 U.S.C. § 158 (a)(4) (1935).
28. For a deeper dive into the series of related debates and compromises related, see Ira Katznelson, Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time (New York: Liveright, 2014).
29. Beverly J. Silver, Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization since 1870 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
31. Juliana Kaplan, “The psychologist who coined the phrase ‘Great Resignation’ reveals how he saw it coming and where he sees it going. ‘Who we are as an employee and as a worker is very central to who we are,’ ” Business Insider, October 2, 2021, https://
www .businessinsider .com /why -everyone -is -quitting -great -resignation -psychologist -pandemic -rethink -life -2021 -10.
32. For a far more detailed articulation of the pitfalls of overexaggerating the right to organize absent an analysis of the economic dynamics of global capitalism (trade, migration, etc.), see Bill Fletcher Jr. and Fernando Gapasin, Solidarity Divided: The Crisis in Organized Labor and a New Path toward Social Justice (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
33. OurDocuments, “Transcript of National Labor Relations Act (1935),”accessed January 12, 2021, https://
www .ourdocuments .gov /doc .php ?flash =false&doc =67&page =transcript.
34. As Ira Katznelson wrote, “The embattled South acted to disarm unions in order to diminish the threat it believed labor posed to the economic underpinnings of the region’s racial order.” Ira Katznelson, Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time (New York: Liveright, 2014), 371.
3. THE GREAT ROLLBACK
1. Nicholas Lemann, Transaction Man: The Rise of the Deal and the Decline of the American Dream (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2019).
2. US Government Accountability Office, Employment Arrangements: Improved Outreach Could Help Ensure Proper Worker Classification (Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, 2006), here https://
www .gao .gov /products /gao -06 -656.
3. Weil, “Strategic Enforcement in the Fissured Workplace.”
4. But see Browning-Ferris Industries of California, Inc., 362 NLRB No. 186, 1599–1648 (2015).
5. Weil, “Strategic Enforcement in the Fissured Workplace.”
6. The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA) of 1959 was supposed to shed light on the practice of employing such antiunion hired guns by requiring companies to disclose any payments to people hired for the purpose of dissuading workers from joining a union; see LMRDA, 29 U.S.C. § 433(a)(3–5) (1959). Unfortunately, Department of Labor regulations and practice have interpreted this requirement so narrowly as to render it nearly a dead letter, and an attempt by the Obama administration to put some teeth into the regulations (see 81 Federal Register 15,924 et seq.) was blocked by a federal court (see National Federation of Independent Business v. Perez, No. 16-cv-066, E.D. Tex. November 16, 2016) and was in the process of being repealed by the Trump administration at the time of writing (see “Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Proposing Rescission of the Advice Exemption in the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act,” June 12, 2017, available at https://
www .federalregister .gov /documents /2017 /06 /12 /2017 -11983 /rescission -of -rule -interpreting -advice -exemption -in -section -203c -of -the -labor -management -reporting.
7. John-Paul Ferguson, “The Eyes of the Needles: A Sequential Model of Union Organizing Drives, 1999–2004,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 62, no. 3 (2008).
8. Union membership density in 1935 was 16.6 percent as opposed to 10.7 percent in 2018. See US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary.”
9. Nancy MacLean, Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right’s Stealth Plan for America (New York: Viking, 2017), 2.
10. See George C. Rogers Jr. and C. James Taylor, A South Carolina Chronology 1497–1992, 2nd ed. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1994); and South Carolina US Census data.
11. MacLean, Democracy in Chains, 9.
12. Harold Meyerson, “The Constitution’s Anti-Majoritarian Bias,” American Prospect, October 10, 2018, https://
prospect .org /power /constitution -s -anti -majoritarian -bias /.
13. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014).
14. For more on the prosperity gospel, see “Prosperity Gospel,” Christianity Today, accessed January 14, 2021, https://
www .christianitytoday .com /ct /topics /p /prosperity -gospel /.
15. MacLean, Democracy in Chains, 135.
16. The history of how the 501(c) tax code section was developed, amended, and used to limit the freedoms of people joining together collectively in a wide variety of democratic associations is well known and arguably deeply embedded in political tit for tat with its authors seeking to hurt their political opposition and/or the activities of groups they deemed “subversive.” For more, see For Purpose Law Group, “The Political Ban in 501(c)(3): Its Odd History,” June 23, 2016, https://
forpurposelaw .com /501c3 -political -ban -history /.
17. US Chamber of Commerce, Worker Centers: Union Front Groups and the Law (Washington, DC: US Chamber of Commerce, 2018).
18. We define dog whistles as coded language used to elevate fear and often discriminatory views in order to convince one section of people to impose limitations on another. For more, see Ian Haney López, Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014).
19. See Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case file, SCOTUS blog, accessed January 14, 2021, http://
www .scotusblog .com /case -files /cases /citizens -united -v -federal -election -commission /.
20. See Brennan Center for Justice, “Debunking the Voter Fraud Myth,” January 31, 2017, https://
www .brennancenter .org /our -work /research -reports /debunking -voter -fraud -myth.
21. Drew DeSilver, “In Past Elections, U.S. Trailed Most Developed Countries in Voter Turnout,” Pew Research Center, November 3, 2020, https://
www .pewresearch .org /fact -tank /2020 /11 /03 /in -past -elections -u -s -trailed -most -developed -countries -in -voter -turnout /.
22. Lane Windham, “Why Labor Law Should Stop Leaning So Hard on the Wagner Act,” American Prospect, July 3, 2015, https://
prospect .org /labor /labor -law -stop -leaning -hard -wagner -act /.
23. Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door.
24. See US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary.”
PROFILE OF THE AUTHOR: ERICA SMILEY
1. Benjamin Hensler, “Building a Coalition for Workers’ Rights at Kmart,” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law 2, no. 4 (2000).
2. Dyana Forester, “Victory! Justice for Georgia Public School Workers,” Jobs With Justice, April 11, 2013, http://
www .jwj .org /victory -justice -for -georgia -public -school -workers; and Natalie Patrick-Knox, Case Study: How Community-Labor Strategies Can Bolster Immigrant Worker Organizing (Washington, DC: Jobs With Justice, 2014).
4. WORTH FIGHTING FOR
1. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Work Stoppages Summary.”
2. “CWA Members in Virginia/West Virginia on Strike at Frontier,” Communication Workers of America, March 6, 2018, https://
cwa -union .org /news /cwa -members -in -virginia -west -virginia -on -strike -frontier; and “AT&T,” Communication Workers of America, accessed January 14, 2021, https:// cwa -union .org /att.
4. Daisuke Wakabayashi, Erin Griffith, Amie Tsang, and Kate Conger, “Google Walkout: Employees Stage Protest Over Handling of Sexual Harassment,” New York Times, November 1, 2018, https://
www .nytimes .com /2018 /11 /01 /technology -walkout -sexual -harassment .html.
5. Stephen Lerner, “What Is Not to Be Done,” American Prospect, April 29, 2020, https://
prospect .org /labor /what -is -not -to -be -done /.
6. Kate Taylor, “Fast-Food CEO Says He’s Investing in Machines Because the Government Is Making It Difficult to Afford Employees,” Business Insider, March 16, 2016, https://
www .businessinsider .com /carls -jr -wants -open -automated -location -2016 -3.
7. Sanes and Schmitt, Regulation of Public Sector Collective Bargaining in the States.
8. Ballotpedia, “Union Station: Public Sector Collective Bargaining Legal in Virginia as of May 1,” April 30, 2021, https://
news .ballotpedia .org /2021 /04 /30 /union -station -public -sector -collective -bargaining -legal -in -virginia -as -of -may -1 /#:~:text =In%201977%2C%20the%20Supreme%20Court,North%20Carolina%20and%20South%20Carolina.
9. See Janus v. AFSCME, Docket No. 16-466 (cert. granted September 28, 2017).
5. BEYOND WORKERS
1. Sarita Gupta, Stephen Lerner, and Joseph A. McCartin, “It’s Not the ‘Future of Work,’ It’s the Future of Workers That’s in Doubt,” American Prospect, August 31, 2018, https://
prospect .org /article /its -not -future -work -its -future -workers -doubt.
2. For a detailed discussion of the idea of intersectional organizing, see Maite Tapia, Tamara L. Lee, and Mikhail Filipovitch, “Supra-Union and Intersectional Organizing: An Examination of Two Prominent Cases in the Low-Wage US Restaurant Industry,” Journal of Industrial Relations 59, no. 4 (2017): 487–509, https://
doi .org /10 .1177 /0022185617714817.
3. Charles C. Heckscher, The New Unionism: Employee Involvement in the Changing Corporation (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), xiv.
4. Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door.
5. Put more eloquently by Martin Carnoy and Derek Shearer in their book Economic Democracy: The Challenge of the 1980s, “Democracy was limited to suffrage and consumer choice. The workplace was governed by the laws of private property, not the Bill of Rights.… Economic democracy is a crucial ingredient in political democracy and vice versa. Under the capitalist organization of production, political democracy is an imperfect concept and can be achieved in practice only through a democratization of the economy.” Martin Carnoy and Derek Shearer, Economic Democracy: The Challenge of the 1980s (London: Routledge, 1980), 12, 131–132.
6. For a deep-dive into early advocates of organizing workers as whole people, see Robert Bussel, Fighting for Total Person Unionism: Harold Gibbons, Ernest Calloway, and Working-Class Citizenship (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2015).
6. ORGANIZING ALL PEOPLE
1. Anne Case and Sir Angus Deaton, “Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2017, no. 1 (2017): 397–443.
2. For a deeper dive into the story of Youngstown, see Sherry Lee Linkon and John Russo, Steeltown U.S.A.: Work and Memory in Youngstown (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002).
3. Kirk Noden, “Why Do White Working-Class People Vote against Their Interests? They Don’t,” Nation, November 17, 2016, https://
www .thenation .com /article /why -do -White -working -class -people -vote -against -their -interests -they -dont /.
4. Rev. J. C. Austin, “Don’t Like Political Correctness? Then Stop Saying ‘Merry Christmas,’ ” Hill, December 22, 2016, http://
thehill .com /blogs /congress -blog /politics /311527 -dont -like -political -correctness -then -stop -saying -merry -christmas.
5. Nicholas Carnes and Noam Lupu, “It’s Time to Bust the Myth: Most Trump Voters Were Not Working Class,” Washington Post, June 5, 2017, https://
www .washingtonpost .com /news /monkey -cage /wp /2017 /06 /05 /its -time -to -bust -the -myth -most -trump -voters -were -not -working -class /.
6. Nathalie Baptiste, “Closing the Racial Wealth Gap,” American Prospect, August 15, 2016, http://
prospect .org /article /closing -racial -wealth -gap.
7. Chris Arnade, “White Flight Followed Factory Jobs Out of Gary, Indiana. Black People Didn’t Have a Choice,” Guardian, March 28, 2017, https://
www .theguardian .com /society /2017 /mar /28 /poverty -racism -gary -indiana -factory -jobs ?CMP =share _btn _link.
8. A fairly detailed outline of the UAW’s last contract with General Motors, Ford, and Fiat Chrysler can be found in Jeffrey S. Rothstein, “The New UAW Contract: A Somewhat ‘Clear Path,’ ” New Labor Forum, December 2015, http://
newlaborforum .cuny .edu /2015 /12 /11 /the -new -uaw -contract -a -somewhat -clear -path /.
9. This is due to the ruling in Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc v. NLRB, 535 U.S. 137 (2002). Read the opinion at https://
www .law .cornell .edu /supct /html /00 -1595 .ZO .html.
10. Cecilia Garza, “Meet the Crawfish-Peeling Guestworkers Who Inspired Walmart Walk-Outs,” Yes!, October 11, 2012, http://
www .yesmagazine .org /people -power /meet -the -crawfish -peeling -guestworkers -who -inspired -walmart -walkouts.
11. NBC News Exit Poll Desk, “Michigan Exit Poll Results: How Bernie Sanders Beat Hillary Clinton,” NBC News, March 8, 2016, https://
www .nbcnews .com /politics /2016 -election /michigan -exit -poll -results -how -bernie -sanders -beat -hillary -clinton -n534601.
12. Summary references internal Jobs With Justice case study of organization’s involvement in Justice @Smithfield campaign, drafted by Treston Davis-Faulkner in 2009; for more on the Smithfield campaign, see Matthew Barr, Union Time: Fighting for Workers’ Rights (documentary released by Unheard Voices Project, 2016).
13. Loomis, A History of America in Ten Strikes, 31. See also Thomas D. Morris, Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619–1860 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004) for further exploration of laws that validated white supremacy and patriarchy in the era of American slavery.
14. Restaurant Opportunities Center United, Take Us Off the Menu: The Impact of Sexual Harassment in the Restaurant Industry (New York: Restaurant Opportunities Center United, 2018).
16. Amy Howe, “Opinion Analysis: Federal Employment Discrimination Law Protects Gay and Transgender Employees (Updated),” SCOTUSblog, June 15, 2020, https://
www .scotusblog .com /2020 /06 /opinion -analysis -federal -employment -discrimination -law -protects -gay -and -transgender -employees /.
17. For a good case study on this campaign, see Chris Brooks, “Why Did Nissan Workers Vote No?” Labor Notes, August 11, 2017, https://
www .labornotes .org /2017 /08 /why -did -nissan -workers -vote -no.
18. Ron Scott, “600 and Moore,” Boggs Blog, November 6, 2009, https://
conversationsthatyouwillneverfinish .wordpress .com /2009 /11 /06 /in -memory -of -hunger -marcher -dave -moore /.
19. Nelson Lichtenstein sums up the story this way: “The modern civil rights movement arose out of the proletarianization and unionization of Black America.” Nelson Lichtenstein, Walter Reuther: The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 207.
20. DC Jobs With Justice, “Walmart Strikers Cap Week of Action with Black Friday March,” December 1, 2014, http://
www .dcjwj .org /walmartstrikers -Black -friday -march /.
21. Rasheen Aldridge, testimony to the Jobs With Justice National Conference, Washington, DC, February 2016.
22. Kira Lerner, “Why Black Lives Matter and Fight for 15 Are Protesting Side-By-Side,” ThinkProgress, April 14, 2016, https://
archive .thinkprogress .org /why -black -lives -matter -and -fight -for -15 -are -protesting -side -by -side -b81f562ac36d /.
23. Jpmassar, “Black Lives Matter Joins Fight for $15 Today in the Bay Area,” Daily Kos, November 10, 2015, http://
www .dailykos .com /story /2015 /11 /10 /1448366 / -Black -Lives -Matter -Joins -Fight -for -15 -Today -in -the -Bay -Area.
24. In August 2015, the Greensboro City Council approved a minimum wage increase for city workers by 2020. Workers have since organized with the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America Local 150. See “Greensboro City Council Agrees on Increasing Minimum Wage for City Workers,” Fox 8 Greensboro, August 8, 2015, https://
myfox8 .com /news /greensboro -city -council -agrees -on -increasing -minimum -wage -for -city -workers /; and “Greensboro City Workers Unionize for Better Pay,” Fox 8 Greensboro, August 8, 2015, http:// myfox8 .com /2017 /01 /17 /greensboro -city -workers -unionize -for -better -pay /.
26. SEIU, “SEIU Announces Support for Movement for Black Lives,” June 12, 2020, https://
www .seiu .org /2020 /06 /seiu -announces -support -for -movement -for -black -lives; and AFT, “American Federation of Teachers Passes Resolution Expanding Its Efforts to Combat Racism, Aligning Itself with the Movement for Black Lives,” June 17, 2020, https:// www .aft .org /press -release /american -federation -teachers -passes -resolution -expanding -its -efforts -combat.
27. AFL-CIO, “AFL-CIO General Board Recommends Police Reform, Calls for Defense Secretary, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff and President of Minneapolis Police Union to Resign,” June 9, 2020, https://
aflcio .org /press /releases /afl -cio -general -board -recommends -police -reform -calls -defense -secretary -chairman.
29. As part of the annual International Labor Conference, Global Labor Justice and the Asia Floor Wage Alliance released company-specific reports on Gap, Inc., H&M, and Walmart that documenting gender-based violence within their supply chains. Part of the demands include publicly supporting a global convention that would set standards to address gender-based violence at work. Gap, Inc., and H&M have now come out in favor of one. See Global Labor Justice, “Worker Voices from the Asian Walmart Garment Supply Chain: A Report on Gender Based Violence to the 2018 International Labour Organization,” May 25, 2018, https://
www .globallaborjustice .org /portfolio _page /walmart -report -press -release /.
30. Anna North, “7 Positive Changes That Have Come from the #MeToo Movement,” Vox, October 4, 2019, https://
www .vox .com /identities /2019 /10 /4 /20852639 /me -too -movement -sexual -harassment -law -2019.
32. For a much more detailed discussion on the role of gender justice in relationship to organizing and collective bargaining among other economic policies, see Dorothy Sue Cobble, ed., The Sex of Class: Women Transforming American Labor (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007).
33. Arundhati Roy, “The Pandemic Is a Portal,” Financial Times, April 3, 2020, https://
www .ft .com /content /10d8f5e8 -74eb -11ea -95fe -fcd274e920ca.
7. BEYOND THE RED AND THE BLUE
1. Interview between Erica Smiley and Jacob Staggers, January 29, 2019, Pleasant Valley, West Virginia.
2. For more on Taylorism and other company-led forms of “worker representation,” see McCartin, Labor’s Great War, chap. 2; Sinyai, Schools of Democracy; and chapter 11 of this book.
3. “Forced Labor on American Shores,” New York Times, July 8, 2012, http://
www .nytimes .com /2012 /07 /09 /opinion /forced -labor -on -american -shores .html ? _r =0.
4. Rachel E. Greenspan, “ ‘It’s the Legacy of Slavery’: Here’s the Troubling History behind Tipping Practices in the U.S.,” Time, August 20, 2019, http://time.com/5404475/history-tipping-american-restaurants-civil-war/ Kerry Segrave, Tipping: An American Social History of Gratuities (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009); and Saru Jayaraman, Behind the Kitchen Door (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press), 2013.
5. Abel Valenzuela Jr., “Immigrant Day Laborers: Myths and Realities,” North American Congress on Latin America, April 10, 2008, https://
nacla .org /article /immigrant -day -laborers -myths -and -realities.
6. Interview between Erica Smiley and Amelia Mullens, January 29, 2019, Pleasant Valley, West Virginia.
7. Robert Shogan, The Battle of Blair Mountain: The Story of America’s Largest Labor Uprising (Boulder, CO: Basic, 2006).
James R. Green, The Devil is Here in These Hills (New York: Grove Atlantic, 2015).
8. Interview between Erica Smiley and Amelia Mullens, January 29, 2019, Pleasant Valley, West Virginia.
9. Sylvia Allegretto and Lawrence Mishel, “The Teacher Pay Penalty Has Hit a New High,” Economic Policy Institute, September 5, 2018, https://
www .epi .org /publication /teacher -pay -gap -2018 /.
10. Direct conversation between Erica Smiley and a person outside of Detroit, Michigan, June 6, 2016.
11. Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association, 578. 14-915 U.S. (2016), https://
www .supremecourt .gov /opinions /15pdf /14 -915 _1bn2 .pdf; Janus v. AFSCME 16-1466. U.S. (2017), https:// www .supremecourt .gov /opinions /17pdf /16 -1466 _2b3j .pdf.
8. BARGAINING WITH THE REAL DECISION-MAKERS
1. Weil, “Strategic Enforcement in the Fissured Workplace.”
2. Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door, 123.
3. Windham, Knocking on Labor’s Door, 124.
4. Silver, Forces of Labor, 85.
5. For specifics on how to calculate the Asia floor wage, see https://
asia .floorwage .org /calculating -a -living -wage.
8. Erica Smiley, “One Year Later, Walmart Still Shirks Responsibility for Supply Chain Catastrophes,” Jobs With Justice, April 23, 2014, http://
www .jwj .org /one -year -later -walmart -still -shirks -responsibility -for -supply -chain -catastrophes.
9. “Precarious Work in the Walmart Global Value Chain.” Report to the ILO Sponsored by the Asia Floor Wage Alliance (AFWA), Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha (BNPS), Labor Resource Center of Indonesia (LIPS), Society for Labor and Development of India (SLD), Center for Alliance of Labor and Human Rights in Cambodia (CENTRAL), The National Centre for Development Cooperation (CNCD) of Belgium, Jobs With Justice of the United States, and the United Workers Congress of the United States, 2016).
10. For a full list of current global union federations, see https://
en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Global _union _federation.
11. Jörg Sydow, Michael Fichter, Markus Helfen, Kadire Zeynep Sayim, and Dimitris Stevis, “Implementation of Global Framework Agreements: Towards a Multi-Organizational Practice Perspective,” Transfer 20, no. 4 (2014): 489–503, https://
journals .sagepub .com /doi /10 .1177 /1024258914546270.
12. Michael Fichter and Dimitris Stevis, “Global Framework Agreements in a Union-Hostile Environment: The Case of the USA,” Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, December 1, 2013, https://
ssrn .com /abstract =2383825.
13. The following summary is paraphrased from Stephen Lerner and Saket Soni, “Bargaining with the Top One-Tenth of the One Percent,” discussion paper for the 99% Spring Leadership Team, April 2012 (used with permission from Stephen Lerner).
14. Mark Vandeveldge, “Toys R Us Workers Put Pressure on Hedge Fund,” Financial Times, September 3, 2018, https://
www .ft .com /content /17b283a8 -ad6d -11e8 -94bd -cba20d67390c.
15. Kate Gibson, “$20 Million Severance Fund Started for Toys R Us Workers,” CBS News, November 21, 2018, https://
www .cbsnews .com /news /20 -million -severance -fund -started -for -tens -of -thousands -of -toys -r -us -workers /; and Chavie Lieber, “Thousands of Toys R Us Workers are Getting Severance, Following Vox, N https:// www .vox .com /the -goods /2018 /11 /21 /18106545 /toys -r -us -retail -workers -severance.
16. The history of the Driscoll dispute can be found in David Bacon, “A New Farm Worker Union Is Born,” American Prospect, June 26, 2017, https://
prospect .org /labor /new -farm -worker -union -born /; and Don McIntosh, “Farmworkers at Sakuma Ratify Historic First Union Contract,” NWLaborPress, June 16, 2017, https:// nwlaborpress .org /2017 /06 /farmworkers -at -sakuma -ratify -historic -first -union -contract /.
17. For more information on how undocumented workers are less protected by US labor laws, see the Hoffman Plastics court case: https://
www .law .cornell .edu /supct /html /00 -1595 .ZO .html.
18. For more on this campaign, see Steven Greenhouse, “Wal-Mart Suspends Supplier of Seafood,” New York Times, June 29, 2012, https://
www .nytimes .com /2012 /06 /30 /business /wal -mart -suspends -seafood -supplier -over -work -conditions .html; and “Forced Labor,” https:// www .nytimes .com /2012 /07 /09 /opinion /forced -labor -on -american -shores .html.
19. Based on Walmart’s own projections, accessed November 4, 2021. https://
corporate .walmart .com /newsroom /company -facts#:~:text =Walmart%20employs%20more%20than%202 .3,million%20in%20the%20U .S .%20alone.
20. Used with permission from Lerner and Soni, “Bargaining with the Top One-Tenth of the One Percent.”
21. Adam Bonica, Nolan McCarthy, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal, “Why Hasn’t Democracy Slowed Rising Inequality?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 27, no. 3 (2013): 103–124, https://
doi .org /10 .1257 /jep .27 .3 .103.
9. COMMUNITY-DRIVEN BARGAINING
1. For more information on this effort, see Atlanta Jobs With Justice, “Georgia School Workers Stand Up across State,” July 4, 2012, http://
www .atlantajwj .org /2012 /07 /georgia -school -workers -stand -up -across .html; and Dyana Forester, “Victory! Justice for Georgia Public School Workers,” Jobs With Justice, April 11, 2013, http:// www .jwj .org /victory -justice -for -georgia -public -school -workers.
2. Alby Gallun, “Equity Residential to Stop Evictions, Rent Hikes,” Crain’s Chicago Business, March 24, 2020, https://
www .chicagobusiness .com /commercial -real -estate /equity -residential -stop -evictions -rent -hikes.
3. Dima Williams, “May 1 Rent Strike through the Lens of Organizers, Landlords, and Industry Leaders,” Forbes, May 1, 2020, https://
www .forbes .com /sites /dimawilliams /2020 /05 /01 /may -1 -rent -strike -through -the -lens -of -organizers -landlords -and -industry -leaders / ?sh =75ecbfa7b85c.
4. Bianca Agustin, Chuck Collins, Jonathan Heller, Sara Myklebust, and Omar Ocampo, “Billionaire Wealth vs. Community Health: Protecting Essential Workers from Pandemic Profiteers,” Institute for Policy Studies, accessed December 2, 2021, https://
www .npr .org /2020 /10 /05 /920314309 /pandemic -profiteers -why -billionaires -are -getting -richer -during -an -economic -crisi.
5. Ethan Corey, “The Brooklyn Tenant Union That’s Fighting Gentrification through Collective Bargaining,” In These Times, July 22, 2015, http://
inthesetimes .com /article /18226 /solidarity -works -brooklyn -tenant -union -organizes -for -rent -regulation.
6. Interview between Erica Smiley and Deloris Wright, March 7, 2019, Jenkintown, PA.
7. See Crown Heights Tenant Union, “Our Demands,” accessed October 17, 2021, http://
www .crownheightstenantunion .org /our -demands.
9. “Autonomous Tenants Union,” Facebook, accessed January 18, 2021, https://
www .com /pg /AutonomousTenantsUnion /about / ?ref =page _internal.
10. The Tenants Union of Washington State’s Principles of Unity declare that “we believe that all tenants have the right to organize and determine the rules and conditions of their tenancy through collective bargaining and other means.” See Tenants Union of Washington State, “Principles of Unity,” accessed October 17, 2021, http://
www .tenantsunion .org /en /about /principles -of -unity.
11. The Tenants Union of Washington State catalogs its victories and losses on the history page of its website. See Tenants Union of Washington State, “TU History,” accessed October 17, 2021, http://
www .tenantsunion .org /en /about /tu -history.
13. Lawrence B. Glickman, “The American Tradition of Consumer Politics,” Organization of American Historians, accessed January 18, 2021, https://
www .oah .org /tah /issues /2017 /may /the -american -tradition -of -consumer -politics /.
15. For a deeper exploration of the bad business fee, see Erica Smiley, “Fining McWalmart: Charging Employers for the Social Costs of Poverty Wages,” New Labor Forum 24, no. 3 (2015): 68–75, https://
doi .org / 10.1177/1095796015597007.
16. “Largest Employers,” Hartford Courant, July 17, 2003, http://
www .courant .com /mhc -market -employers -htmlstory .html.
17. Daniel Kennedy, Stan McMillen, and Louise Simmons, “The Economic and Fiscal Impact of Low-Wage Work in Connecticut,” Issue Brief, April 2015, 1–6, https://
d3n8a8pro7vhmx .cloudfront .net /ctassetbuilding /pages /132 /attachments /original /1476906349 /issueBriefCT6 ?1476906349.
18. CVS Health, “Aetna Announces Changes That Will Improve Wages and Medical Benefits for Thousands of Its Employees,” January 12, 2015, https://
cvshealth .com /newsroom /press -releases /aetna -announces -changes -will -improve -wages -and -medical -benefits -thousands.
19. City of Seattle, “Domestic Workers Standards Board,” accessed November 9, 2021, https://
www .seattle .gov /domestic -workers -standards -board.
20. Erica Smiley, “Domestic Workers are Using the Gig Economy Against Itself,” The Nation, June 25, 2021, https://
www .thenation .com /article /society /domestic -workers -handy -labor /.
22. See, generally, Julian Gross, Greg LeRoy, and Madeline Janis-Aparicio, “Community Benefits Agreements: Making Development Projects Accountable,” Good Jobs First and the California Partnership for Working Families, 2005, http://
www .goodjobsfirst .org /sites /default /files /docs /cba2005final .pdf.
23. See, e.g., “HUD Office of Policy Development & Research, Community Benefits Agreement Guides Development in Milwaukee’s Park East Corridor,” PD&R Edge, accessed January 18, 2021, https://
www .huduser .gov /portal /pdredge /pdr _edge _inpractice _072012 .html.
24. See Kingsbridge Armory CBA (requiring an $8 million initial contribution and ongoing payments from the developer to a coalition of community organizations for community improvements, developing a small-business incubator, and other purposes), Partnership for Working Families, “Policy & Tools: Community Benefits Agreements and Policies in Effect,” accessed January 18, 2021, https://
www .forworkingfamilies .org /page /policy -tools -community -benefits -agreements -and -policies -effect.
25. Larissa Larson, “The Pursuit of Responsible Development: Addressing Anticipated Benefits and Unwanted Burdens through Community Benefits Agreements,” Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy, 2009, https://
www .researchgate .net /publication /228385987 _The _pursuit _of _responsible _development _Addressing _anticipated _benefits _and _unwanted _burdens _through _community _benefit _agreements; on requiring the developer to provide “publicly accessible park spaces,” see Partnership for Working Families, “Los Angeles Sports and Entertainment District CBA: Staples Center Community Benefits Program,” accessed January 18, 2021, https:// www .forworkingfamilies .org /resources /staples -cba; on funding for job-training programs, see “Core Community Benefits Agreement.”
26. See Matthew Raffol, “Community Benefits Agreements in the Political Economy of Urban Development,” Advocates’ Forum, University of Chicago, School of Social Service Administration, 2012, http://
ssa .uchicago .edu /community -benefits -agreements -political -economy -urban -development.
27. See, e.g., Hunters Point Shipyard/Candlestick Point Integrated Development Project Core Community Benefits Agreement (2008) (listing the San Francisco Labor Council as part of the coalition of organizations that each “have the right to enforce the provisions of the [Community Benefits Agreement] against all parties incorporating this Program into contracts or other agreements) (available at https://
juliangross .net /docs /CBA /Hunters _Point _Agreement .pdf.
28. See California High-Speed Rail Authority, “Community Benefits Agreement,” August 7, 2013, http://
www .hsr .ca .gov /docs /programs /construction /HSR13 _06 _Community _Benefits _Agreement _Executed .pdf.
29. For more information on the Better Builder Program, see http://
www .austintexas .gov /edims /document .cfm ?id =258601.
30. Janice Fine, “Enforcing Labor Standards in Partnership with Civil Society: Can Co-Enforcement Succeed Where the State Alone Has Failed?” Politics and Society 45, no. 3 (2017), https://
doi .org /10 .1177 /0032329217702603.
31. Partnership for Working Families & Community Benefits Law Center, “Common Challenges in Negotiating Community Benefits Agreements and How to Avoid Them,” January 2016, https://
www .forworkingfamilies .org /resources /publications /common -challenges -negotiating -community -benefits -agreements -how -avoid -them.
32. Annette Bernhardt, Ruth Milkman, Nik Theodore, Douglas Heckathorn, Mirabai Auer, James DeFilippis, Ana Luz González, Victor Narro, Jason Perelshteyn, Diana Polson, and Michael Spiller, “Broken Laws, Unprotected Workers: Violations of Employment and Labor Laws in America’s Cities,” UCLA: Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, California Digital Library, University of California, 2009, https://
escholarship .org /content /qt1vn389nh /qt1vn389nh .pdf; and John W. Schoen, “States in Crisis: Embroiled in the Worst Budget Battles since the Great Recession,” CNBC, July 11, 2017, https:// www .cnbc .com /2017 /07 /11 /states -in -crisis -the -worst -budget -battles -since -the -great -recession .html.
33. See Lewis Creekmore, Ronké Huges, Lynn Jennings, Sarah John, Janet LaBella, C. Arturo Manjarrez, Michelle Oh, Zoe Osterman, and Marta Woldu, “The Justice Gap: Measuring the Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans,” Legal Services Corporation, June 2017, https://
www .lsc .gov /sites /default /files /images /TheJusticeGap -FullReport .pdf.
34. Workplace Fairness, “Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDA’s),” Workplace Fairness, accessed January 18, 2021, https://
www .workplacefairness .org /nondisclosure -agreements.
35. See David Cooper and Teresa Kroeger, “Employers Steal Billions from Workers’ Paychecks Each Year,” Economic Policy Institute, May 10, 2017, https://
www .epi .org /publication /employers -steal -billions -from -workers -paychecks -each -year /.
36. See Janice Fine, “Co-Production: Bringing Together the Unique Capabilities of Government and Society for Stronger Labor Standards Enforcement,” Labor Innovations for the 21st Century Fund, September 2015, http://
theliftfund .org /wp -content /uploads /2015 /09 /LIFTReportCoproductionOct _ExecSumm -rf _4 .pdf.
37. See Evelyn Nieves, “Accord with Tomato Pickers Ends Boycott of Taco Bell,” Washington Post, March 9, 2005, https://
www .washingtonpost .com /wp -dyn /articles /A18187 -2005Mar8 .html.
38. Steven Greenhouse, “Tomato Pickers’ Wages Fight Faces Obstacles,” New York Times, December 24, 2007, https://
www .nytimes .com /2007 /12 /24 /us /24tomato .html.
39. See “Burger King Campaign Comes to an End with Historic Press Conference, Signing Ceremony at US Capital,” Coalition of Immokalee Workers, May 23, 2008, http://
www .ciw -online .org /blog /2008 /05 /burger -king -campaign -comes -to -an -end -with -historic -press -conference -signing -ceremony -at -u -s -capitol /.
40. See “2017–2019 Recipients, CEOF Past Recipients,” Seattle Office of Labor Standards, accessed January 19, 2021, https://
www .seattle .gov /laborstandards /funding /community -outreach -and -education -fund /coef -past -recipients
41. One of the other early fair scheduling laws was passed in Emeryville, CA.
42. Retail Workers Bill of Rights, “San Francisco’s Formula Retail Economy,” accessed January 19, 2021, http://
retailworkerrights .com /get -the -facts /san -franciscos -formula -retail -economy /; San Francisco Office of Labor Standards Enforcement, “Formula Retail Employee Rights Ordinances,” accessed October 17, 2021, https:// sfgov .org /olse /formula -retail -employee -rights -ordinances. https:// oewd .org /sites /default /files /Invest%20In%20Neighborhoods /State%20of%20the%20Retail%20Sector%20 -%20Final%20Report .pdf.
43. Eric Dirnbach, “Unions and Worker Co-Ops, Old Allies, Are Joining Forces Again,” Labor Notes, September 5, 2017, http://
www .labornotes .org /blogs /2017 /09 /unions -and -worker -co -ops -old -allies -are -joining -forces -again.
44. “U.S. Employment Plan,” Jobs to Move to America, April 10, 2020, https://
jobstomoveamerica .org /resource /u -s -employment -plan -2 /.
45. See Transportation, General, and Intermodal Programs, Public Transportation, 49 U.S.C. § 5325, https://
www .govinfo .gov /content /pkg /USCODE -2011 -title49 /html /USCODE -2011 -title49 -subtitleIII -chap53 -sec5325 .htm.
46. Avondale Industries, Inc., Petition-cross-respondent v. National Labor Relations Board, Respondent-cross-petitioner, 180 F.3d 633 (5th Circ. 1999), https://
law .justia .com /cases /federal /appellate -courts /F3 /180 /633 /486050 /.
48. “Paving the High Road.”
10. BUILDING LONG-TERM LABOR-COMMUNITY POWER
1. The United Steelworkers have a great summary of these on their website at https://
www .usw .org /workplaces /public -sector /2015 -conference -material /5 -Subjects -of -Bargaining .pdf.
2. NLRB, “About NLRB,” accessed January 19, 2021, https://
www .nlrb .gov /rights -we -protect /whats -law /unions /collective -bargaining -section -8d -8b3.
3. Lichenstein, The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit.
4. For more information on the General Motors strike, see David Brody, Workers in Industrial America (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1993), 167–174; and Lichtenstein, The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit, 220–247.
5. Arthur Delaney and Alissa Scheller, “Who Gets Food Stamps? White People Mostly,” Huffington Post, February 28, 2015, http://
www .huffingtonpost .com /2015 /02 /28 /food -stamp -demographics _n _6771938 .html.
6. Interview between Heather DeLuca-Nestor and Allyson Perry, January 29, 2019, Pleasant Valley, West Virginia.
7. “BCG Seven Elements,” a handout/PDF of the Kalmanovitz Initiative at Georgetown, the Center for Innovation and Worker Organization at Rutgers, and the Action Center on Race and the Economy, https://
www .bargainingforthecommongood .org /about /.
8. See Joseph A. McCartin, “Bargaining for the Common Good,” Dissent, Spring 2016, https://
www .dissentmagazine .org /article /bargaining -common -good -community -union -alignment.
9. See “Economic News Release.”
10. See Joseph A. McCartin, “Public Sector Unionism under Assault: How to Combat the Scapegoating of Organized Labor,” New Labor Forum, January 2016, http://
newlaborforum .cuny .edu /2016 /01 /19 /public -sector -unionism -under -assault -how -to -combat -the -scapegoating -of -organized -labor /.
11. See Janus v. AFSCME, 16-1466 US (2018) (cert. granted September 28, 2017).
12. Heather Gillers and Jason Grotto, “How the Tribune Analyzed CPS’ Bond Deals,” Chicago Tribune, November 7, 2014, https://
www .chicagotribune .com /investigations /ct -chicago -public -schools -bonds -methodology -met -20141107 -story .html.
13. Mary Cathryn Ricker, “Teacher-Community Unionism: A Lesson from St. Paul,” Dissent, Summer 2015. https://
www .dissentmagazine .org /article /teacher -community -unionism -lesson -st -paul.
14. For a direct account of their experience, see Ricker, “Teacher-Community Unionism.”
15. Marilyn Sneiderman and Secky Fascione, “Going on Offense during Challenging Times,” New Labor Forum, January 2018, https://
newlaborforum .cuny .edu /2018 /01 /18 /going -on -offense -during -challenging -times /.
16. “Concrete Examples of Bargaining for the Common Good,” compiled by Rutgers School of Management and Labor Relations and the Center for Innovation in Worker Organization, Action Center on Race and the Economy (ACRE), and Georgetown University’s Kalmanovitz Initiative for Labor and the Working Poor. Revised October 29, 2018.
17. This example first appeared in an article written by Erica Smiley, “Time to Tackle the Whole Squid: Confronting White Supremacy to Build Bargaining Power,” Class, Race and Corporate Power 5, no. 2 (2017), https://
doi .org /10 .25148 /CRCP .5 .2 .006505.
18. Smiley, “Time to Tackle the Whole Squid.”
19. “Concrete Examples of Bargaining for the Common Good.”
20. “Concrete Examples of Bargaining for the Common Good.”
21. Smiley, “Time to Tackle the Whole Squid.”
22. “Concrete Examples of Bargaining for the Common Good.”
23. “Whistleblower: Wells Fargo Fraud ‘Could Have Been Stopped,’ ” CBS News, August 3, 2018, https://
www .cbsnews .com /news /whistleblower -wells -fargo -fraud -could -have -been -stopped /.
24. Renae Merle, “After Years of Apologies for Customer Abuses, Wells Fargo CEO Tim Sloan Suddenly Steps Down,” Washington Post, March 28, 2019, https://
www .washingtonpost .com /business /2019 /03 /28 /wells -fargo -ceo -tim -sloan -step -down -immediately / ?utm _term = .34e039593252.
25. Hugh Son and John Melloy, “Bank of America Is Raising Its Minimum Wage for Employees to $20 an Hour,” CNBC, April 9, 2019, https://
www .cnbc .com /2019 /04 /09 /bank -of -america -is -raising -its -minimum -wage -for -employees -to -20 -an -hour .html.
26. For more discussion on the efforts of bank workers, see Lerner, Berlofa, McGrath, and Klemmber, “Tipping the Balance.”
11. WHO BENEFITS?
1. “Black People vs. Robots: Reparations and Workers Rights in the Age of Automation,” panel discussion organized by, Data for Black Lives, January 14, 2019, available on YouTube, https://
youtu .be /1uOt3GriWAI; http:// d4bl .org /.
2. Carnoy and Shearer, Economic Democracy, 195–196.
3. Carnoy and Shearer, Economic Democracy, 195–196.
4. Stephanie Christensen, “The Great Migration (1915–1960),” Black Past, December 6, 2007, http://
www .Blackpast .org /aah /great -migration -1915 -1960.
5. Alexis C. Madrigal, “How Automation Could Worsen Racial Inequality,” Atlantic, January 16, 2018, https://
www .theatlantic .com /technology /archive /2018 /01 /Black -workers -and -the -driverless -bus /550535 /.
6. “What Is Sports Analytics?” Sports Management Degree Guide, accessed January 20, 2021, https://
www .sports -management -degrees .com /faq /what -is -sports -analytics /.
7. For more information on the agreements of various sports leagues, see Jason Chung, “Who Owns Your Fitbit Data? Biometric Data Privacy Problems,” Healthcare Blog, November 25, 2017, https://
thehealthcareblog .com /blog /2017 /11 /25 /who -owns -your -fitbit -data -biometric -data -privacy -problems /; nd Nicholas Zych, “Collection and Ownership of Minor League Athlete Activity Biometric Data by Major League Baseball Franchises,” DePaul Journal of Sports Law 14, no. 1 (2018), https:// paperity .org /p /144523875 /collection -and -ownership -of -minor -league -athlete -activity -biometric -data -by -major -league.
8. Preston Gralla, “Amazon Prime and the Racism Algorithms,” Computer World, May 11, 2016, https://
www .computerworld .com /article /3068622 /amazon -prime -and -the -racist -algorithms .html.
9. This section is adapted from an original article by Erica Smiley, “The Gig Economy Is Screwing Over Workers—And It Needs to Stop,” Talk Poverty, October 13, 2016, https://
talkpoverty .org /2016 /10 /13 /gig -economy -screwing -workers -needs -stop /, which was itself based on a presentation Smiley gave to the American Sociology Association convention in Seattle in 2016.
10. Taylorism refers to the late nineteenth-century “scientific management” practices developed by Frederick Taylor. These practices sought increased efficiency by methodically tracking the daily habits/actions of workers and attempting to streamline them. At best, workers were a part of and even in charge of tracking these adjustments. At worst, the system allowed managers to track workers as coldly as they might tweak a machine, leading to many union struggles over Taylorism. Sinyai’s Schools of Democracy (pp. 55–71) has a strong description of Taylorism.
11. Chris Benner, Erin Johansson, Kung Feng, and Hays Witt, “On-Demand and On-the-Edge: Ride Hailing and Delivery Workers in San Francisco.” A report commissioned by the Institute for Social Transformation, University of California–Santa Cruz, May 5, 2020, https://
transform .ucsc .edu /on -demand -and -on -the -edge /.
12. Thomas Ahearn, “Judge Rules Women Can Sue Uber Over Alleged Sexual Assaults,” ESR News Blog, May 10, 2016, http://
www .esrcheck .com /wordpress /2016 /05 /10 /judge -rules -women -can -sue -uber -over -alleged -sexual -assaults /.
13. Davey Alba, “Judge Rejects Uber’s $100 Million Settlement with Drivers,” Wired, August 18, 2016, https://
www .wired .com /2016 /08 /uber -settlement -rejected /.
14. Steven Hill, “Can Workers Get a Fair Deal in the Gig Economy?” Common Dreams, August 24, 2016, http://
www .commondreams .org /views /2016 /08 /24 /can -workers -get -fair -deal -gig -economy.
15. Timothy Kim, “The Dynamex Decision: The California Supreme Court Restricts Use of Independent Contractors,” Labor & Employment Blog, May 1, 2018, https://
www .laboremploymentlawblog .com /2018 /05 /articles /class -actions /dynamex -decision -independent -contractors /.
16. Alison Griswold, “Uber Is Using Its US Customer Service Reps to Deliver Its Anti-Union Message,” Quartz, February 20, 2016, http://
qz .com /619601 /uber -is -using -its -us -customer -service -reps -to -deliver -its -anti -union -message /.
17. Rebecca Smith, “Union-Busting. Now There’s an App for That,” NELP, March 7, 2016, http://
www .nelp .org /commentary /union -busting -now -theres -an -app -for -that /.
18. Sydney Brownstone, “Seattle Lyft Driver Wants to Know Why She Was Deactivated after Attending a Teamsters Organizing Meeting,” Stranger, November 19, 2015, http://
www .thestranger .com /blogs /slog /2015 /11 /19 /23163805 /seattle -lyft -driver -wants -to -know -why -she -was -deactivated -after -attending -a -teamsters -organizing -meeting.
19. Cole Stangler, “Why the Uber, Lyft Driver Union Push Could Disrupt the Gig Economy,” IBTimes, December 18, 2015, http://
www .ibtimes .com /why -uber -lyft -driver -union -push -could -disrupt -gig -economy -2232778.
20. Daniel Wiessner and Dan Levine, “Uber Deal Shows Divide in Labor’s Drive for Role in ‘Gig Economy,’ ” Reuters, May 23, 2016, https://
www .reuters .com /article /us -uber -tech -drivers -labor /uber -deal -shows -divide -in -labors -drive -for -role -in -gig -economy -idUSKCN0YE0DF.